A2

#161 Gene therapy

Gene therapy: treatment of a genetic disorder by altering a person’s genotype (insert functional alleles of genes into cells) Common vectors: virus: retrovirus, lentivirus, HIV, adeno-associated virus (AAV) liposomes – small spheres of phospholipids naked DNA – retrovirus: inserts genes randomly into host’s genome. If the gene is inserted into another gene or regulatory sequence …

#159 Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics is the collecting, processing and analysis of biological information and data using computer software. Bioinformatics build databases which hold gene sequences and sequences of complete genomes. These sequences can be matched –> calculate degrees of similarity (close similarities indicate recent common ancestry) human genes may be found in other organisms and are used to model …

#158 Genetic markers and microarrays

Genetic markers uses enzymes that produces fluorescent substances. There used to be antibiotic resistance gene markers, but there was the chance that they would spread the antibiotic resistance to other new strains of bacteria.Genetic markersGreen fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish: gene inserted into plasmid –> taken up by bacteria shine UV light –> identify genetically …